Since the appearance of the printing press in the 15th century, people have realized how important is the shape and size of characters that will be printed. Printing machine made a real revolution in the dissemination of knowledge and the reproduction of the written work. For the first time in history it was possible to amplify a literary work in several hundred copies without rewriting. In the centuries before the advent of printing, people are hand-copied books and literary works. For this reason the books were very expensive and rare. A library with 200 titles was considered as a very rich library. Then appeared Johannes Gutenberg who invented the model of cast letters in the prepared printing presses. This invention in the beginning was only used for reproduction of religious literature. A few decades later appeared Martin Luther and the Protestant movement that advocated for translating the Bible into vernacular languages. With the help of the press, Bible could read the every resident of Germany and England. There has been a democratization and enlightenment of millions of people. In some areas before that time, literacy rate was at a very low level of 1-3%. After the appearance of the press, in England, for example, the literacy rate has increased 6 times.
History of fonts and typography
Let’s go back to the beginning of the story and the story of fonts. The science that deals with individual font sets is called typography. Designers involved in the development of new typefaces are called type designers. One of the basic concepts of the font family and refers to a group of fonts that share similarities in design. The first groups of fonts were created shortly after the making of the first printing press. According to some sources, it was in the beginning of the 16th century. Great strides in developing of new font families was made in 1728. That year, William Caslon issued his famous book Cyclopaedia. It has printed dozens of new typefaces and made the first systematized overview of the new species. Until the advent of digital publishing, the terms font and typeface had clearly separated meaning. However, after the advent of computers and digital fonts, everything has become more complicated with new generations. As an example, we can state that at the time of classic printing the word means specific font size. In contrast, in electronic form can be scalable font that can include dozens of sizes.
There are many definitions of computer font. According to the generally accepted rules, it is a set of character glyphs and other symbols, which are contained in the electronic file. It should be noted that the computer font is scalable symbol set, which can be printed in all available sizes. There are three basic forms in which a computer fonts are available.
1. Outline (some call them fonts and vector). For a description of each symbol are used mathematical formulas. We can list several subspecies vector fonts: TrueType, OpenType, Type1 and Type3 and many others.
2. Bitmap fonts use the technology matrix to describe the appearance of the dots of each symbol. Within this group are the following font formats: BDF, PCF, SNF, FON, AFM, BMF, sf and many others.
3. Stroke With this type of use and additional information specific to the front lines defined to describe fonts. Stroke subtypes were Metafont, Digitype, Stylized Stroke Fonts …
Currently, there are over 10,000 types of fonts. Every day, this number increases by several more. Of course, there are those who use several basic fonts, but for true lovers of typography on the web, it is possible to find a real treasure.